One of the most obvious differences between Āyurveda and Modern Medicine concerns the anatomical description of the human body. Modern Medicine meticulously describes the shape of the body and its constituents, dividing it ideally into systems, organs and tissues, parts to which it then attributes specific functions. On the contrary, Āyurveda describes the functioning of the organism as a whole and it is described only when the function is intimately connected with the expression of a form, see for example the description of the skin or the development of the embryo. This difference is one of the expressions of the diverging representation of the world and consequent diverse epistemology to which the two systems of thought refer. This is why there is no trace in the ayurvedic classical texts of anatomical descriptions of the thyroid gland. The function attributed by Modern Medicine to the thyroid is, according to the functional vision of Āyurveda, that of Agni in its various forms. The concept of Agni is very broad and determines in a profound way not only the functioning of the whole organism but the persistence of life itself. Modern medicine tends to compartmentalize functions according to organs or systems and does not make a general relation, this is particularly limiting especially when analyzing the metabolism which is the basic function of life itself. Āyurveda, on the other hand, implements a transversal vision and functionally binds all organs and systems in a network, highlighting their interrelationships and Interdependencies. The analysis according to the criteria of the Collaborative Medicine and Science Co.M.S. of the various functional modalities of Agni in relation to Modern Medicine can offer the latter valuable elements to better understand the general metabolic models and in particular, those related to the thyroid gland and suggest new therapeutic strategies.