Prof. Shivenarain Gupta MD (Ayu) ist Arzt und Professor der ayurvedischen Medizin aus Nadiad (Indien). An der berühmten Ayurveda-Universität von Jamnagar erwarb er seinen Doktortitel. Heute steht er der Abteilung für Innere Medizin am P. D. Patel Ayurveda Hospital vor. Als Professor des angeschlossenen J. S. Ayurveda College ist es ihm gelungen, eine der angesehensten pancakarma-Kliniken Indiens aufzubauen, in der Patienten aus Indien und Europa Hilfe erhalten. Er wurde von IASTAM (India) für seine Leistungen in der Lehre ausgezeichnet. An der Europäischen Akademie für Ayurveda ist er seit vielen Jahren einer der wichtigsten Lehrer und akademischer Kopf der Ausbildung in Ayurveda-Medizin.
Pañcakarma – psychic status of patients during various phases of pañcakarma
Prof. Dr. S.N. Gupta
Pañcakarma is a group of therapies meant for radical expulsion of harmful accumulations from the body those are not eliminated through routine excretory procedures. In this way, these therapies bring the body’s milieu to normal. Being delicate procedures they require special care and attentiveness at every level. They do not clean the body’s atmosphere only but also influence at mental level as mind has to operate through body. The body is in highly turbulent state during all phases of pañcakarma. This is like cleaning a glass bottle by shaking vigorously after pouring a cleansing liquid in to it. Because of turbulence in body’s milieu, mind is also in a shaky state. Therefore, patient needs a good support not only physically but mentally at every level. Then it may result into wonderful outcomes. Therefore, Ayurveda advices to take care of a patient like a tender egg, bowl brimful of oil or like a cowherd carrying a stick manages the cows (Ca.si.12/5)
Patients usually have some misunderstandings and confusions about pañcakarma procedures. They often compare them with some spa type of treatments. Therefore, when they encounter real pañcakarma, this is difficult for them to accept it easily and immediately. Moreover, they are not familiar with such situations. Patients have a common belief that Ayurvedic treatment consists of only pañcakarma, though it is not necessary to perform these procedures in every condition. In several conditions pañcakarma, particularly the oleation is contraindicated. When the image about pañcakarma created by them is shattered they develop confusion, uncertainty and anxiety.
When it comes to internal oleation therapy, they develop anxiety because of their early information though unrealistic, about harms of the fatty substances particularly ghee. Body’s milieu is turbulent during the pūrvakarma. Doṣas are agitated and set to come out. It also influences the mental status of the patient which may give rise to certain emotional outbursts. When we think about mental reaction during pañcakarma (in which gut is the major operating organ), we have to keep in mind also the theory of gut-mind relation. These emotional reactions are observed when patient is alone in the room are while getting abhyaṅga etc.
Anxieties are observed during pradhānakarma also. Emotional outbursts have been observed sometimes during vamana. During virecana, frequency of stools may cause anxiety even though there is no dehydration. Forceful expulsion of colonic contents and straining during nirūha may sometimes cause vasovagal attack resulting into momentary fainting. This may also generate anxiety related to basti. During paścātkarma patient is weakened bodily which also influence his mental status. He has to observe absolute rest. He gets enough time to contemplate. This free contemplation is beneficial for the patient to see the mental problems clearly. However, if a proper support is not provided, he may be dragged in to anxiety and negative thinking.
Ojas – myths and facts with practical understanding about management of its disorders
Prof. Dr. S.N. Gupta
As usually happens in samskrita language, the word Ojas has several meanings which results into its interpretations in different ways in different disciplines. Often these are mixed up with Ayurvedic concepts and put it into the category of some mystic entity. In Ayurveda it is clearly a material form which may be a substance or a cellular structure. This is again not a single substance. It is a term used for several entities possessing similar properties and functions.
In Ayurvedic field ojas, rasa, kapha and balam are sometimes used as synonyms as they are similar in functions and are supportive as well as responsible to each other. (Su.Su. 15/23-26,A.Hṛ.Su.11/8,Ca.Su.17/117,Ca.Ni.4/7, Dalhaṇa on Su.Su.15/19)
Ojas is described as a substance or structure with reddish pale color and guru, snigdha, picchila, śīta, madhura, mṛdu, ślakṣṇa, sthira, sāndra and prasanna properties. (Ca. Ci.24/31) This is responsible for immunity, vitality of the dhātus, body strength, mental strength, confidence, fearlessness, potence, tolerance, pleasure and brilliance.
There are two forms of ojas- param and aparam. (Cakrapāṇī commentary on ca.su.30/6-7)
Param ojas is most precious and inherited in the child from the mother, while apram is a final product of dhātupariṇāma. The amount of former is about half an Anjali while of the later is about eigth drops. Loss of former is fatal in consequences while of latter causes proneness for serious illnesses both physical as well as mental.
If we interpret the available classical descriptions about ojas, we may find that it may be substance essential for the cell membrane, substance essential for the health of heart, immune cells and the substances, and cells or substance promoting cell-reproduction and repair. Glycerophospholipids and Coenzyme Q10 are also worth attention seeking substances in this context.